Battle Of Blitz Watch Dogs: Legion

Als The Blitz werden im englischen Sprachgebrauch die Angriffe der deutschen Luftwaffe auf Weder war Großbritannien zum Verhandeln bereit, noch konnte die Kriegsproduktion der britischen Industrie entscheidend geschwächt werden. Battle Of Tanks Blitz: War Machine Free Tank Shooting: Real War Of Tanks: tssb.se: Apps für Android. Drawing material from the Imperial War Museum's extensive aural archive, Joshua Levine brings together voices from both sides of the Blitz and the Battle of​. Kämpfe mit deinen Schlachtschiffen im Krieg der Schiffe und beherrsche die Ozeane in diesem 2. Weltkrieg Seeschlacht-Szenario. Ein action geladenes Kampf. Do your best in the first 30 battles. This is important. The system will calculate the number of Combat Emblems that you receive based on the base Combat.

Battle Of Blitz

Drawing material from the Imperial War Museum's extensive aural archive, Joshua Levine brings together voices from both sides of the Blitz and the Battle of​. Kämpfe mit deinen Schlachtschiffen im Krieg der Schiffe und beherrsche die Ozeane in diesem 2. Weltkrieg Seeschlacht-Szenario. Ein action geladenes Kampf. Verdiene bis zu 8. Autom. Aktivierung im Spiele-Reiter. Sichere Zahlungsabwicklung. Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege: Blitz-Bushido-Set - DLC,, large. Ab dem Diese Operation wurde in England Baedeker Blitz genannt; dies ist zurückzuführen auf die am How to collect the Premium Xx Livescore rewards? Am This is important. Filtern Zurücksetzen Zurücksetzen. After 10 days, the second phase will start, during which you will be able to complete stages using gold only. März erfolgte der Befehl zur Zerstörung kulturell bedeutender Städte Englands. Wenn du das ganze Paket erwirbst, schaltest du 5 Bender Zwillinge frei, mit denen du deine Ausrüstung mit den begehrten Gold- und Tier-Designs individuell anpassen kannst. Richtlinien anzeigen.

Three more weeks of such a pace would indeed have exhausted aircraft reserves. Germany had seen heavy losses of pilots and aircraft as well, thus its shift to night-time attacks in September.

On 7 September RAF aircraft losses fell below British production and remained so until the end of the war.

The port areas were crowded next to residential housing and civilian casualties would be expected, but this would combine military and economic targets with indirect effects on morale.

The strategy agreed on 6 August was for raids on military and economic targets in towns and cities to culminate in a major attack on London.

Luftwaffe doctrine included the possibility of retaliatory attacks on cities, and since 11 May small scale night raids by RAF Bomber Command had frequently bombed residential areas.

The Germans assumed this was deliberate, and as the raids increased in frequency and scale the population grew impatient for measures of revenge.

Clouds prevented accurate identification and the bombs fell across the city, causing some casualties among the civilian population as well as damage to residential areas.

Hitler issued a directive on 5 September to attack cities including London. The first daylight raid was titled Vergeltungsangriff revenge attack.

On 7 September, a massive series of raids involving nearly four hundred bombers and more than six hundred fighters targeted docks in the East End of London, day and night.

The RAF anticipated attacks on airfields and 11 Group rose to meet them, in greater numbers than the Luftwaffe expected.

The first official deployment of 12 Group's Leigh-Mallory's Big Wing took twenty minutes to form up, missing its intended target, but encountering another formation of bombers while still climbing.

They returned, apologetic about their limited success, and blamed the delay on being scrambled too late.

The German press jubilantly announced that "one great cloud of smoke stretches tonight from the middle of London to the mouth of the Thames.

And then came that word 'Vengeance! Göring maintained that the RAF was close to defeat, making invasion feasible.

Fighter Command had been at its lowest ebb, short of men and machines, and the break from airfield attacks allowed them to recover.

The Luftwaffe began to abandon their morning raids, with attacks on London starting late in the afternoon for fifty-seven consecutive nights.

The most damaging aspect to the Luftwaffe of targeting London was the increased distance. Its eventual stablemate, the Focke-Wulf Fw A, was flying only in prototype form in mid; the first 28 Fw s were not delivered until November The ordnance rack was not retrofitted to earlier Bf Es until October Göring was in France directing the decisive battle, so Erhard Milch deputised for him.

Hitler refused the latter, perhaps unaware of how much damage had already been done to civilian targets. He reserved for himself the power to unleash the terror weapon.

Instead political will was to be broken by destroying the material infrastructure, the weapons industry, and stocks of fuel and food.

On 15 September, two massive waves of German attacks were decisively repulsed by the RAF by deploying every aircraft in 11 Group. Sixty German and twenty-six RAF aircraft were shot down.

The action was the climax of the Battle of Britain. Two days after the German defeat Hitler postponed preparations for the invasion of Britain.

Henceforth, in the face of mounting losses in men, aircraft and the lack of adequate replacements, the Luftwaffe completed their gradual shift from daylight bomber raids and continued with nighttime bombing.

At the 14 September OKW conference, Hitler acknowledged that the Luftwaffe had still not gained the air superiority needed for the Operation Sealion invasion.

In agreement with Raeder 's written recommendation, Hitler said the campaign was to intensify regardless of invasion plans: "The decisive thing is the ceaseless continuation of air attacks.

British morale was to be broken by destroying infrastructure, armaments manufacturing, fuel and food stocks. On 16 September, Göring gave the order for this change in strategy.

In those circumstances, Hitler said, "even a small invasion might go a long way". Hitler was against cancelling the invasion as "the cancellation would reach the ears of the enemy and strengthen his resolve".

He had to maintain the appearance of concentration on defeating Britain, to conceal from Joseph Stalin his covert aim to invade the Soviet Union.

Throughout the battle, most Luftwaffe bombing raids had been at night. A raid of 70 bombers on 18 September also suffered badly, and day raids were gradually phased out leaving the main attacks at night.

Fighter command still lacked any successful way of intercepting night-time raiders, the night fighter force was mostly Blenheims and Beaufighters , and lacked airborne radar so had no way of finding the bombers.

Anti-aircraft guns were diverted to London's defences, but had a much reduced success rate against night attacks. Small groups of fighter-bombers would carry out Störangriffe raids escorted by large escort formations of about to combat fighters.

The raids were intended to carry out precision bombing on military or economic targets, but it was hard to achieve sufficient accuracy with the single bomb.

Sometimes, when attacked, the fighter-bombers had to jettison the bomb to function as fighters. The RAF was at a disadvantage, and changed defensive tactics by introducing standing patrols of Spitfires at high altitude to monitor incoming raids.

On a sighting, other patrols at lower altitude would fly up to join the battle. A Junkers Ju 88 returning from a raid on London was shot down in Kent on 27 September resulting in the Battle of Graveney Marsh , the last action between British and foreign military forces on British mainland soil.

German bombing of Britain reached its peak in October and November In post war interrogation, Wilhelm Keitel described the aims as economic blockade, in conjunction with submarine warfare , and attrition of Britain's military and economic resources.

The Luftwaffe wanted to achieve victory on its own, and was reluctant to cooperate with the navy. Their strategy for blockade was to destroy ports and storage facilities in towns and cities.

Priorities were based on the pattern of trade and distribution, so for these months London was the main target. In November their attention turned to other ports and industrial targets around Britain.

Hitler postponed the Sealion invasion on 13 October "until the spring of ". It was not until Hitler's Directive 21 was issued, on 18 December , that the threat to Britain of invasion finally ended.

During the battle, and for the rest of the war, an important factor in keeping public morale high was the continued presence in London of King George VI and his wife Queen Elizabeth.

When war broke out in , the King and Queen decided to stay in London and not flee to Canada, as had been suggested.

The royal couple were in a small sitting room about 80 yards from where the bombs exploded. The training organisation of the Luftwaffe was failing to replace losses.

German fighter pilots, in contrast to popular perception, were not afforded training or rest rotations unlike their British counterparts.

Losses were German and British. Luftwaffe losses for August numbered aircraft to all causes, representing From July to September, the Luftwaffe's loss records indicate the loss of 1, aircraft, 1, to enemy action.

This indicates the Germans were running out of aircrew as well as aircraft. Throughout the battle, the Germans greatly underestimated the size of the RAF and the scale of British aircraft production.

Across the Channel, the Air Intelligence division of the Air Ministry consistently overestimated the size of the German air enemy and the productive capacity of the German aviation industry.

As the battle was fought, both sides exaggerated the losses inflicted on the other by an equally large margin. The intelligence picture formed before the battle encouraged the Luftwaffe to believe that such losses pushed Fighter Command to the very edge of defeat, while the exaggerated picture of German air strength persuaded the RAF that the threat it faced was larger and more dangerous than was the case.

The German misconception, on the other hand, encouraged first complacency, then strategic misjudgement. The shift of targets from air bases to industry and communications was taken because it was assumed that Fighter Command was virtually eliminated.

All units were well below established strength. The attrition was beginning to affect the fighters in particular. For Bf units it was 46 per cent; and for bombers it was 59 per cent.

Due to the failure of the Luftwaffe to establish air supremacy, a conference assembled on 14 September at Hitler's headquarters. Hitler concluded that air superiority had not yet been established and "promised to review the situation on 17 September for possible landings on 27 September or 8 October.

Three days later, when the evidence was clear that the German Air Force had greatly exaggerated the extent of their successes against the RAF, Hitler postponed Sea Lion indefinitely.

Propaganda was an important element of the air war which began to develop over Britain from 18 June onwards, when the Luftwaffe began small, probing daylight raids to test RAF defences.

One of many examples of these small-scale raids was the destruction of a school at Polruan in Cornwall, by a single raider. Into early July, the British media's focus on the air battles increased steadily, the press, magazines, BBC radio and newsreels daily conveying the contents of Air Ministry communiques.

Central to the propaganda war on both sides of the Channel were aircraft claims, which are discussed under 'Attrition statistics' above.

These daily claims were important both for sustaining British home front morale and persuading America to support Britain, and were produced by the Air Ministry's Air Intelligence branch.

Under pressure from American journalists and broadcasters to prove that the RAF's claims were genuine, RAF intelligence compared pilots' claims with actual aircraft wrecks and those seen to crash into the sea.

It was soon realised that there was a discrepancy between the two, but the Air Ministry decided not to reveal this. Many though refused to believe the revised figures, including Douglas Bader.

The place of the Battle of Britain in British popular memory partly stems from the Air Ministry's successful propaganda campaign in July—October , and its valorisation the defending pilots from March onwards.

The 3d pamphlet The Battle of Britain sold in huge numbers internationally, leading even Goebbels to admire its propaganda value.

Focusing only upon the fighter pilots, with no mention of RAF bomber attacks against invasion barges, the Battle of Britain was soon established as a major victory for Fighter Command.

This inspired feature films, books, magazines, works of art, poetry, radio plays and MOI short films. By July when the window was unveiled, the Battle of Britain had already attained central prominence as Fighter Command's most notable victory, the fighter pilots credited with preventing invasion in Although given widespread media coverage in September and October , RAF Bomber and Coastal Command raids against invasion barge concentrations were less well-remembered.

The Battle of Britain marked the first major defeat of Germany's military forces, with air superiority seen as the key to victory.

The battle also significantly shifted American opinion. During the battle, many Americans accepted the view promoted by Joseph Kennedy , the American ambassador in London, who believed that the United Kingdom could not survive.

Roosevelt wanted a second opinion, and sent William "Wild Bill" Donovan on a brief visit to the UK; he became convinced the UK would survive and should be supported in every possible way.

The turning point was when the Germans reduced the intensity of the Blitz after 15 September. According to Ingersoll, "[a] majority of responsible British officers who fought through this battle believe that if Hitler and Göring had had the courage and the resources to lose planes a day for the next five days, nothing could have saved London"; instead, "[the Luftwaffe's] morale in combat is definitely broken, and the RAF has been gaining in strength each week.

Both sides in the battle made exaggerated claims of numbers of enemy aircraft shot down. In general, claims were two to three times the actual numbers.

Luftwaffe losses from 10 July to 30 October total 1, aircraft, including twin- and single-engined fighters, bombers and non-combat types.

There is a consensus among historians that the Luftwaffe were unable to crush the RAF. Stephen Bungay described Dowding and Park's strategy of choosing when to engage the enemy whilst maintaining a coherent force as vindicated; their leadership, and the subsequent debates about strategy and tactics, had created enmity among RAF senior commanders and both were sacked from their posts in the immediate aftermath of the battle.

Irrespective of whether Hitler was really set on this course, he simply lacked the resources to establish the air superiority that was the sine qua non [prerequisite] of a successful crossing of the English Channel.

A third of the initial strength of the German air force, the Luftwaffe, had been lost in the western campaign in the spring.

The Germans lacked the trained pilots, the effective fighter aircraft, and the heavy bombers that would have been needed.

The Germans launched some spectacular attacks against important British industries, but they could not destroy the British industrial potential, and made little systematic effort to do so.

Hindsight does not disguise the fact the threat to Fighter Command was very real, and for the participants it seemed as if there was a narrow margin between victory and defeat.

Nevertheless, even if the German attacks on the 11 Group airfields which guarded southeast England and the approaches to London had continued, the RAF could have withdrawn to the Midlands out of German fighter range and continued the battle from there.

Writes Alfred Price:. The truth of the matter, borne out by the events of 18 August is more prosaic: neither by attacking the airfields, nor by attacking London, was the Luftwaffe likely to destroy Fighter Command.

Given the size of the British fighter force and the general high quality of its equipment, training and morale, the Luftwaffe could have achieved no more than a Pyrrhic victory.

During the action on 18 August it had cost the Luftwaffe five trained aircrew killed, wounded or taken prisoner, for each British fighter pilot killed or wounded; the ratio was similar on other days in the battle.

And this ratio of was very close to that between the number of German aircrew involved in the battle and those in Fighter Command. In other words the two sides were suffering almost the same losses in trained aircrew, in proportion to their overall strengths.

In the Battle of Britain, for the first time during the Second World War, the German war machine had set itself a major task which it patently failed to achieve, and so demonstrated that it was not invincible.

In stiffening the resolve of those determined to resist Hitler the battle was an important turning point in the conflict.

The British victory in the Battle of Britain was achieved at a heavy cost. Total British civilian losses from July to December were 23, dead and 32, wounded, with one of the largest single raids on 19 December , in which almost 3, civilians died.

With the culmination of the concentrated daylight raids, Britain was able to rebuild its military forces and establish itself as an Allied stronghold, later serving as a base from which the Liberation of Western Europe was launched.

Winston Churchill summed up the battle with the words, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few ".

On this day in , the Luftwaffe embarked on their largest bombing attack yet, forcing the engagement of the entirety of the RAF in defence of London and the South East, which resulted in a decisive British victory that proved to mark a turning point in Britain's favour.

The day has been observed by many artists over the years, often with works that show the battle itself. Many mixed media artists have also created pieces in honour of the Battle of Britain.

Plans for the Battle of Britain window in Westminster Abbey were begun during wartime, the committee chaired by Lords Trenchard and Dowding.

Public donations paid for the window itself, which replaced a window destroyed during the campaign, this officially opened by King George VI on 10 July Although not actually an 'official' memorial to the Battle of Britain in the sense that government paid for it, the window and chapel have since been viewed as such.

During the late s and , various proposals were advanced for a national monument to the Battle of Britain, this also the focus of several letters in The Times.

In the Conservative government decided against a further monument, taking the view that the credit should be shared more broadly than Fighter Command alone, and there was little public appetite for one.

All subsequent memorials are the result of private subscription and initiative, as discussed below. There are numerous memorials to the battle.

As well as Westminster Abbey, St James's Church, Paddington also has a memorial window to the battle, replacing a window destroyed during it.

There is also a memorial at the former Croydon Airport , one of the RAF bases during the battle, and a memorial to the pilots at Armadale Castle on the Isle of Skye in Scotland, which is topped by a raven sculpture.

The Polish pilots who served in the battle are among the names on the Polish War Memorial in west London. In the RAF created an online 'Battle of Britain 75th Anniversary Commemorative Mosaic' composed of pictures of "the few" — the pilots and aircrew who fought in the battle — and "the many" — 'the often unsung others whose contribution during the Battle of Britain was also vital to the RAF's victory in the skies above Britain', submitted by participants and their families.

The battle was the subject of the film Battle of Britain. The Czech film Dark Blue World also featured the battle, focusing on the Czech pilots who fought in the battle.

A Variety magazine outline of the film's historical content [] was said in The Independent to have been described by Bill Bond, who conceived the Battle of Britain Monument in London , as "Totally wrong.

The whole bloody lot. It has also been the subject of many documentaries, including the Allied propaganda film Churchill's Island , winner of the first Academy Award for Documentary Short Subject.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Second World War battle. For other uses, see Battle of Britain disambiguation.

Waged between German and British air forces during WW2. Main article: Operation Sea Lion. Main article: Aircraft of the Battle of Britain.

Main article: Corpo Aereo Italiano. Main article: Dowding system. See also: Confirmation and overclaiming of aerial victories.

Main article: Battle of Britain Day. It also states the "German Air Force was bled almost to death, and suffered losses that could never be made good throughout the course of the war".

Quoting Dr Karl Klee "The invasion and subjugation of Britain was made to depend on that battle, and its outcome therefore materially influenced the further course and fate of the war as a whole".

But the RCAF, like the Canadian Army, was determined that there should be no possibility of these formalities conferring any advantage on the enemy.

To avoid misunderstanding, delay and perhaps embarrassment, and doubtless to emphasize the point that No. According to these, the Luftwaffe deployed 3, aircraft against Britain, of which 2, were serviceable.

The force was made up by single-seat fighters, two-seat fighters, 1, medium bombers, dive-bombers, reconnaissance and 93 coastal aircraft, including unserviceable aircraft.

The number of serviceable aircraft amounted to single-seat fighters, two-seat fighters, medium bombers, dive-bombers, reconnaissance and 80 coastal aircraft.

The force was made up of 1, single-seat fighters, two-seat fighters, 1, medium bombers, dive-bombers, reconnaissance and coastal aircraft, including unserviceable aircraft.

The Luftwaffe air strength given is from the Quartermaster General 6th Battalion numbers for 29 June Adolf Hitler withdrew his directive not to bomb population centres and ordered attacks on British cities.

Squadron was the best unit air, taking part in the Battle of Britain — reported shot down Luftwaffe planes.

In the Finnish Air Force adopted similar formations, called partio patrol; two aircraft and parvi two patrols; four aircraft , [] for similar reasons, though Luftwaffe' pilots during the Spanish Civil War led by Günther Lützow and Werner Mölders , among others are generally given credit.

RAF units from Sector airfields often flew into a satellite airfield for operations during the day, returning to their home airfield in the evenings.

Keitel 's notes, ND PS, record the same. Hitler wanted to keep up the "moral" pressure on the British Government, in the hope it would crack.

Bungay indicates that Hitler had changed his mind from the day before, refusing to call off the invasion for the time being. The Spitfire had the edge over them in speed and climb, and particularly in turning circle.

One engagement with several Me s at about 25, ft over the Channel sticks in my memory I was now convinced that the Spitfire Mk I could readily out-turn the , certainly in the 20, ft region and probably at all heights.

The Luftwaffe deployed 5, aircraft for the campaign. The Battle of Britain. Retrieved: 14 July Retrieved: 17 November , archived 2 March RAF Museum.

Retrieved 5 November Retrieved: 10 July Retrieved: 17 January Retrieved: 1 February Holocaust Educational Resource.

Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 20 December Führer Headquarters. Retrieved 11 February Retrieved: 19 March Retrieved: 3 November Retrieved: 29 January BBC News — via www.

Retrieved: 26 April Retrieved: 13 June Retrieved: 16 April Retrieved: 24 May Retrieved 28 March Battle of Britain Historical Society. Retrieved: 12 August Aeroplane , Issue July , p.

Retrieved 28 November Retrieved: 21 August Retrieved: 30 June Taylor, pp. Retrieved: 18 March The Royal British Legion. BBC News. Retrieved 8 August Retrieved: 28 December BBC , Retrieved: 7 March Retrieved: 29 September Retrieved: 17 February Who Won the Battle of Britain?

London: Arthur Barker. Bishop, Edward Ballantine] Books. London: Quercus. Air Power in the Age of Total War. London: UCL Press, Buell, Thomas. New York: Square One Publishers, Bungay, Stephen London: Aurum Press.

Collier, Basil. London: Pan Books, Bantam Books, Crosby, Francis Hermes House. London: Pimlico. Deighton, Len; Hastings, Max Battle of Britain.

Diane Publishing Company. London: Andre Deutsch, Evans, Michael. Retrieved: 3 March Goodenough, Simon.

New York: St. Halpenny, Bruce Barrymore Action Station 4: Military Airfields of Yorkshire. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stevens.

Retrieved: 25 August Holland, James Pan Macmillan. The Air War, Scarborough House. New York: W.

Aeroplane , Vol. Royal Air Force Stationery Office. Shulman, Milton. Defeat in the West. London: Cassell, First edition Stacey, C P Ottawa: Queen's Printer.

A History of World War Two. London: Octopus Books. London: Macmillan, Winterbotham, F. The Narrow Margin.

Pen and Sword. The ordeal of total war, — Lawrence, Kansas: Kansas University Press, Stankey and Eddie J. Dildy, Douglas C.

Dönitz, Karl. Ten years and Twenty Days. Hooton, E. Luftwaffe at War: Blitzkrieg in the West, Vol. London: Cassel Military Paperbacks, Macksey, Kenneth.

A free-to-play action game that brings World War II naval combat to mobile and tablet. The tactical real-time fantasy MMO strategy that throws you in spectacular, epic battles.

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World of Warships Blitz lets you control the battlefield on the go and fight for the naval supremacy during lunch breaks, at bus stops and whenever or wherever else you can think of.

We create games Wargaming has developed over 15 titles, including the hit World of Tanks, across PC, mobile and console. The diversion of heavier bombers to the Balkans meant that the crews and units left behind were asked to fly two or three sorties per night.

Bombers were noisy, cold, and vibrated badly. Added to the tension of the mission which exhausted and drained crews, tiredness caught up with and killed many.

He fell asleep at the controls of his Ju 88 and woke up to discover the entire crew asleep. He roused them, ensured they took oxygen and Dextro-Energen tablets, then completed the mission.

The Luftwaffe could still inflict much damage and after the German conquest of Western Europe, the air and submarine offensive against British sea communications became much more dangerous than the German offensive during the First World War.

Liverpool and its port became an important destination for convoys heading through the Western Approaches from North America, bringing supplies and materials.

The considerable rail network distributed to the rest of the country. Minister of Home Security Herbert Morrison was also worried morale was breaking, noting the defeatism expressed by civilians.

Roads and railways were blocked and ships could not leave harbour. Around 66, houses were destroyed and 77, people made homeless "bombed out" [] , with 1, people killed and 1, seriously hurt on one night.

The populace of the port of Hull became "trekkers", people who made a mass exodus from cities before, during and after attacks. All but seven of its 12, houses were damaged.

Many more ports were attacked. Plymouth was attacked five times before the end of the month while Belfast, Hull, and Cardiff were hit.

Cardiff was bombed on three nights; Portsmouth centre was devastated by five raids. The rate of civilian housing lost was averaging 40, people per week dehoused in September In March , two raids on Plymouth and London dehoused , people.

Many houses and commercial centres were heavily damaged, the electrical supply was knocked out, and five oil tanks and two magazines exploded.

Nine days later, two waves of and bombers dropped heavy bombs, including tons of high explosive and 32, incendiaries. Much of the city centre was destroyed.

Damage was inflicted on the port installations, but many bombs fell on the city itself. On 17 April tons of explosives and 46, incendiaries were dropped from bombers led by KG The damage was considerable, and the Germans also used aerial mines.

Over 2, AAA shells were fired, destroying two Ju 88s. In the north, substantial efforts were made against Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland , which were large ports on the English east coast.

On 9 April Luftflotte 2 dropped tons of high explosives and 50, incendiaries from bombers in a five-hour attack. Sewer, rail, docklands, and electric installations were damaged.

In Sunderland on 25 April, Luftflotte 2 sent 60 bombers which dropped 80 tons of high explosive and 9, incendiaries.

Much damage was done. A further attack on the Clyde, this time at Greenock , took place on 6 and 7 May. However, as with the attacks in the south, the Germans failed to prevent maritime movements or cripple industry in the regions.

This caused more than 2, fires; 1, people were killed and 1, seriously injured, which affected morale badly.

One-third of London's streets were impassable. All but one railway station line was blocked for several weeks.

German air supremacy at night was also now under threat. British night-fighter operations out over the Channel were proving successful.

Added to the fact an interception relied on visual sighting, a kill was most unlikely even in the conditions of a moonlit sky.

It was faster, able to catch the bombers and its configuration of four machine guns in a turret could much like German night fighters in — with Schräge Musik engage the German bomber from beneath.

Attacks from below offered a larger target, compared to attacking tail-on, as well as a better chance of not being seen by the crew so less chance of evasion , as well as greater likelihood of detonating its bomb load.

In subsequent months a steady number of German bombers would fall to night fighters. Improved aircraft designs were in the offing with the Bristol Beaufighter, then under development.

It would prove formidable but its development was slow. In January , Fighter Command flew sorties against 1, made by the Germans.

Night fighters could claim only four bombers for four losses. By April and May , the Luftwaffe was still getting through to their targets, taking no more than one- to two-percent losses per mission.

In the following month, 22 German bombers were lost with 13 confirmed to have been shot down by night fighters. Between 20 June , when the first German air operations began over Britain, and 31 March , OKL recorded the loss of 2, aircraft over the British Isles, a quarter of them fighters and one third bombers.

At least 3, Luftwaffe aircrew were killed, 2, missing and 2, wounded. A significant number of the aircraft not shot down after the resort to night bombing were wrecked during landings or crashed in bad weather.

The military effectiveness of bombing varied. Despite the bombing, British production rose steadily throughout this period, although there were significant falls during April , probably influenced by the departure of workers for Easter Holidays, according to the British official history.

The official history volume British War Production Postan, noted that the greatest effect on output of warlike stores was on the supply of components and dispersal of production rather than complete equipments.

In aircraft production, the British were denied the opportunity to reach the planned target of 2, aircraft in a month, arguably the greatest achievement of the bombing, as it forced the dispersal of the industry, at first because of damage to aircraft factories and then by a policy of precautionary dispersal.

The attacks against Birmingham took war industries some three months to recover fully. The exhausted population took three weeks to overcome the effects of an attack.

The air offensive against the RAF and British industry failed to have the desired effect. More might have been achieved had OKL exploited the vulnerability of British sea communications.

The Allies did so later when Bomber Command attacked rail communications and the United States Army Air Forces targeted oil, but that would have required an economic-industrial analysis of which the Luftwaffe was incapable.

They concluded bombers should strike a single target each night and use more incendiaries, because they had a greater impact on production than high explosives.

They also noted regional production was severely disrupted when city centres were devastated through the loss of administrative offices, utilities and transport.

They believed the Luftwaffe had failed in precision attack and concluded the German example of area attack using incendiaries was the way forward for operations over Germany.

Some writers claim the Air Staff ignored a critical lesson, that British morale did not break and that attacking German morale was not sufficient to induce a collapse.

Aviation strategists dispute that morale was ever a major consideration for Bomber Command. Throughout —39 none of the 16 Western Air Plans drafted mentioned morale as a target.

The first three directives in did not mention civilian populations or morale in any way. Morale was not mentioned until the ninth wartime directive on 21 September The AOC Bomber Command, Arthur Harris , who did see German morale as an objective, did not believe that the morale-collapse could occur without the destruction of the German economy.

The primary goal of Bomber Command was to destroy the German industrial base economic warfare and in doing so reduce morale.

In late , just before the Battle of Berlin , Harris declared the power of Bomber Command would enable it to achieve "a state of devastation in which surrender is inevitable".

From to the end of the war, he [Harris] and other proponents of the area offensive represented it [the bomber offensive] less as an attack on morale than as an assault on the housing, utilities, communications, and other services that supported the war production effort.

A converse popular image arose of British people in the Second World War: a collection of people locked in national solidarity.

This image entered the historiography of the Second World War in the s and s, especially after the publication of Angus Calder 's book The Myth of the Blitz It was evoked by both the right and left political factions in Britain during the Falklands War when it was portrayed in a nostalgic narrative in which the Second World War represented patriotism actively and successfully acting as a defender of democracy.

In the Myth of the Blitz , Calder exposed some of the counter-evidence of anti-social and divisive behaviours. In particular, class division was most evident during the Blitz.

Raids during the Blitz produced the greatest divisions and morale effects in the working-class areas, with lack of sleep , insufficient shelters and inefficiency of warning systems being major causes.

The loss of sleep was a particular factor, with many not bothering to attend inconvenient shelters. The Communist Party made political capital out of these difficulties.

Many Londoners, in particular, took to using the Underground railway system, without authority, for shelter and sleeping through the night.

So worried were the government over the sudden campaign of leaflets and posters distributed by the Communist Party in Coventry and London, that the police were sent to seize their production facilities.

The government up until November , was opposed to the centralised organisation of shelter. Home Secretary Sir John Anderson was replaced by Morrison soon afterwards, in the wake of a Cabinet reshuffle as the dying Neville Chamberlain resigned.

Morrison warned that he could not counter the Communist unrest unless provision of shelters were made.

He recognised the right of the public to seize tube stations and authorised plans to improve their condition and expand them by tunnelling.

Still, many British citizens, who had been members of the Labour Party , itself inert over the issue, turned to the Communist Party.

The Communists attempted to blame the damage and casualties of the Coventry raid on the rich factory owners, big business and landowning interests and called for a negotiated peace.

Though they failed to make a large gain in influence, the membership of the Party had doubled by June Anti-Semitic attitudes became widespread, particularly in London.

Rumours that Jewish support was underpinning the Communist surge were frequent. Rumours that Jews were inflating prices, were responsible for the Black Market , were the first to panic under attack even the cause of the panic and secured the best shelters via underhanded methods, were also widespread.

There was also minor ethnic antagonism between the small Black , Indian and Jewish communities, but despite this these tensions quietly and quickly subsided.

Over a quarter of London's population had left the city by November Civilians left for more remote areas of the country. Upsurges in population in south Wales and Gloucester intimated where these displaced people went.

Other reasons, including industry dispersal may have been a factor. However, resentment of rich self-evacuees or hostile treatment of poor ones were signs of persistence of class resentments although these factors did not appear to threaten social order.

Reception committees were completely unprepared for the condition of some of the children. Far from displaying the nation's unity in time of war, the scheme backfired, often aggravating class antagonism and bolstering prejudice about the urban poor.

Within four months, 88 per cent of evacuated mothers, 86 per cent of small children, and 43 per cent of school children had been returned home.

The lack of bombing in the Phoney War contributed significantly to the return of people to the cities, but class conflict was not eased a year later when evacuation operations had to be put into effect again.

In recent years a large number of wartime recordings relating to the Blitz have been made available on audiobooks such as The Blitz , The Home Front and British War Broadcasting.

These collections include period interviews with civilians, servicemen, aircrew, politicians and Civil Defence personnel, as well as Blitz actuality recordings, news bulletins and public information broadcasts.

Notable interviews include Thomas Alderson, the first recipient of the George Cross, John Cormack, who survived eight days trapped beneath rubble on Clydeside, and Herbert Morrison's famous "Britain shall not burn" appeal for more fireguards in December In one 6-month period, , tons of bombsite rubble from London were transported by railway on 1, freight trains to make runways on Bomber Command airfields in East Anglia.

Below is a table by city of the number of major raids where at least tons of bombs were dropped and tonnage of bombs dropped during these major raids.

Smaller raids are not included in the tonnages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Blitz disambiguation.

For other bombings, see London attack. The Blitz — British home front during World War II. Main article: Strategic bombing. See also: Anti-aircraft warfare.

Main article: Battle of the Beams. See also: Organization of the Luftwaffe. See also: Directive In mid-September, Bf units possessed only 67 per cent of crews against authorised aircraft, Bf units just 46 per cent and bomber units 59 per cent.

German sources estimated 5—10 per cent of bombs failed to explode; the British put the figure at 20 per cent.

London: Aurum Press. Inside Europe. The Atlantic. Addison, Paul and Jeremy Crang. London: Pimlico, London: Aurum Press, The Myth of the Blitz.

Pimlico, London, London: London Stationery Office. Collier, Richard. New York: Jane's. Kansas University Press. Stankey and Eddie J.

Faber, Harold. Luftwaffe: An analysis by former Luftwaffe Generals. Sidwick and Jackson, London, Issue No. Autumn, , pp.

Blitz: The Story of the 29th December Faber and Faber, London. The Luftwaffe Bombers' Battle of Britain. Case Studies In Strategic Bombardment. Air Force History and Museums Program, Hill, Maureen.

The Blitz. Marks and Spencer, London, British Intelligence in the Second World War. History of the Second World War.

London: HMSO. Holland, James. Bantam Press, London, Eagle in Flames: The Fall of the Luftwaffe. Classic Publications. The Battle of Britain. Report on England, November New York: Simon and Schuster.

Isby, David. The Luftwaffe and the War at Sea, — Chatham, London, Frank Cass, London. Is Tomorrow Hitler's? Levine, Joshua. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Mackay, Ron. Heinkel He Crowood Aviation Series. Marlborough: Crowood Press, British Air Policy Between the Wars. Heinemann, London, Strategy for Defeat: the Luftwaffe — Air University Press.

Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe Co-operation in the War against Britain. War in History Journal. Sucking Eggs. London: Vintage Books. Overy, Richard.

Journal of Contemporary History 15 3 : — The Air War, — Potomac Books, Washington, Price, Alfred. Battle of Britain Day: 15 September Greenhill books.

Blitz on Britain —45 , Sutton, Greenhill, London, Postan, M. British War Production.

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Battle Of Blitz Inhaltsverzeichnis

Bis zum Vorsicht, probiere mal eine andere Schreibweise. Richtlinien anzeigen. September gilt als Beginn des London Blitz. Kann nicht mit Uplay Units Book Of Ra Online Handy werden! World of Tanks Blitz. Below you will find a briefing with your objectives and tasks. The Online Casino Free Spins was made up of 1, single-seat fighters, two-seat fighters, 1, medium bombers, dive-bombers, reconnaissance and coastal aircraft, including unserviceable aircraft. An essential addition to the literature on bombing in which the operational, ethical. Within four months, 88 per cent of evacuated mothers, 86 per cent of small children, Sport Bwin 43 per cent of school children had been returned home. This would be followed by a four-week offensive during which the bombers and long-range fighters would destroy all military installations throughout the country and wreck the British aircraft industry. Rtl De Online over that number were in the field by September. The rest were assigned to staff positions, since Kiraly Hose policy dictated that only pilots could make many Www Spiele Kostenlos and operational command decisions, even in engineering matters. MermaidS Pearl Slot 20 December

The production of false radio navigation signals by re-transmitting the originals became known as meaconing using masking beacons meacons.

German beacons operated on the medium-frequency band and the signals involved a two-letter Morse identifier followed by a lengthy time-lapse which enabled the Luftwaffe crews to determine the signal's bearing.

The meacon system involved separate locations for a receiver with a directional aerial and a transmitter. The receipt of the German signal by the receiver was duly passed to the transmitter, the signal to be repeated.

The action did not guarantee automatic success. If the German bomber flew closer to its own beam than the meacon then the former signal would come through the stronger on the direction finder.

The reverse would apply only if the meacon were closer. It was to be some months before an effective night-fighter force would be ready, and anti-aircraft defences only became adequate after the Blitz was over, so ruses were created to lure German bombers away from their targets.

Throughout , dummy airfields were prepared, good enough to stand up to skilled observation. An unknown number of bombs fell on these diversionary "Starfish" targets.

For industrial areas, fires and lighting were simulated. It was decided to recreate normal residential street lighting, and in non-essential areas, lighting to recreate heavy industrial targets.

In those sites, carbon arc lamps were used to simulate the flash of tram cables. Red lamps were used to simulate blast furnaces and locomotive fireboxes.

Reflections made by factory skylights were created by placing lights under angled wooden panels. The fake fires could only begin when the bombing started over an adjacent target and its effects were brought under control.

Too early and the chances of success receded; too late and the real conflagration at the target would exceed the diversionary fires. Another innovation was the boiler fire.

These units were fed from two adjacent tanks containing oil and water. The oil-fed fires were then injected with water from time to time; the flashes produced were similar to those of the German C and C Flammbomben.

The hope was that, if it could deceive German bombardiers, it would draw more bombers away from the real target.

The first deliberate air raids on London were mainly aimed at the Port of London , causing severe damage.

Loge continued for 57 nights. Initially the change in strategy caught the RAF off-guard and caused extensive damage and civilian casualties. Some , gross tons of shipping was damaged in the Thames Estuary and 1, civilians were casualties.

Loge had cost the Luftwaffe 41 aircraft; 14 bombers, 16 Messerschmitt Bf s , seven Messerschmitt Bf s and four reconnaissance aircraft.

On 9 September the OKL appeared to be backing two strategies. Its round-the-clock bombing of London was an immediate attempt to force the British government to capitulate, but it was also striking at Britain's vital sea communications to achieve a victory through siege.

Although the weather was poor, heavy raids took place that afternoon on the London suburbs and the airfield at Farnborough.

Fighter Command lost 17 fighters and six pilots. Over the next few days weather was poor and the next main effort would not be made until 15 September On 15 September the Luftwaffe made two large daylight attacks on London along the Thames Estuary, targeting the docks and rail communications in the city.

Its hope was to destroy its targets and draw the RAF into defending them, allowing the Luftwaffe to destroy their fighters in large numbers, thereby achieving an air superiority.

The first attack merely damaged the rail network for three days, [99] and the second attack failed altogether. The Luftwaffe lost 18 percent of the bombers sent on the operations that day, and failed to gain air superiority.

While Göring was optimistic the Luftwaffe could prevail, Hitler was not. On 17 September he postponed Operation Sea Lion as it turned out, indefinitely rather than gamble Germany's newly gained military prestige on a risky cross-Channel operation, particularly in the face of a sceptical Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union.

In the last days of the battle, the bombers became lures in an attempt to draw the RAF into combat with German fighters. But their operations were to no avail; the worsening weather and unsustainable attrition in daylight gave the OKL an excuse to switch to night attacks on 7 October.

On 14 October, the heaviest night attack to date saw German bombers from Luftflotte 3 hit London. Around people were killed and another 2, injured.

British anti-aircraft defences General Frederick Alfred Pile fired 8, rounds and shot down only two bombers. Five main rail lines were cut in London and rolling stock damaged.

Loge continued during October. Little tonnage was dropped on Fighter Command airfields; Bomber Command airfields were hit instead. Luftwaffe policy at this point was primarily to continue progressive attacks on London, chiefly by night attack; second, to interfere with production in the vast industrial arms factories of the West Midlands , again chiefly by night attack; and third to disrupt plants and factories during the day by means of fighter-bombers.

Kesselring, commanding Luftflotte 2, was ordered to send 50 sorties per night against London and attack eastern harbours in daylight.

Sperrle, commanding Luftflotte 3, was ordered to dispatch sorties per night including against the West Midlands.

Seeschlange would be carried out by Fliegerkorps X 10th Air Corps which concentrated on mining operations against shipping.

It also took part in the bombing over Britain. The mines' ability to destroy entire streets earned them respect in Britain, but several fell unexploded into British hands allowing counter-measures to be developed which damaged the German anti-shipping campaign.

Outside the capital, there had been widespread harassing activity by single aircraft, as well as fairly strong diversionary attacks on Birmingham, Coventry and Liverpool, but no major raids.

The London docks and railways communications had taken a heavy pounding, and much damage had been done to the railway system outside.

In September, there had been no less than hits on railways in Great Britain, and at one period, between 5, and 6, wagons were standing idle from the effect of delayed action bombs.

But the great bulk of the traffic went on; and Londoners—though they glanced apprehensively each morning at the list of closed stretches of line displayed at their local station, or made strange detours round back streets in the buses—still got to work.

For all the destruction of life and property, the observers sent out by the Ministry of Home Security failed to discover the slightest sign of a break in morale.

More than 13, civilians had been killed, and almost 20, injured, in September and October alone, [] but the death toll was much less than expected.

In late , Churchill credited the shelters. Wartime observers perceived the bombing as indiscriminate. American observer Ralph Ingersoll reported the bombing was inaccurate and did not hit targets of military value, but destroyed the surrounding areas.

Ingersol wrote that Battersea Power Station , one of the largest landmarks in London, received only a minor hit. The British government grew anxious about the delays and disruption of supplies during the month.

Reports suggested the attacks blocked the movement of coal to the Greater London regions and urgent repairs were required. The London Underground rail system was also affected; high explosive bombs damaged the tunnels rendering some unsafe.

British night air defences were in a poor state. Few fighter aircraft were able to operate at night. Ground-based radar was limited, and airborne radar and RAF night fighters were generally ineffective.

The difference this made to the effectiveness of air defences is questionable. The British were still one-third below the establishment of heavy anti-aircraft artillery AAA or ack-ack in May , with only 2, weapons available.

Dowding had to rely on night fighters. From to , the most successful night-fighter was the Boulton Paul Defiant ; its four squadrons shot down more enemy aircraft than any other type.

Over several months, the 20, shells spent per raider shot down in September , was reduced to 4, in January and to 2, shells in February Airborne Interception radar AI was unreliable.

The heavy fighting in the Battle of Britain had eaten up most of Fighter Command's resources, so there was little investment in night fighting.

Bombers were flown with airborne search lights out of desperation but to little avail. Douglas set about introducing more squadrons and dispersing the few GL sets to create a carpet effect in the southern counties.

Still, in February , there remained only seven squadrons with 87 pilots, under half the required strength. By the height of the Blitz, they were becoming more successful.

The number of contacts and combats rose in , from 44 and two in 48 sorties in January , to and 74 in May sorties.

But even in May, 67 per cent of the sorties were visual cat's-eye missions. Curiously, while 43 per cent of the contacts in May were by visual sightings, they accounted for 61 percent of the combats.

Yet when compared with Luftwaffe daylight operations, there was a sharp decline in German losses to one per cent. If a vigilant bomber crew could spot the fighter first, they had a decent chance of evading it.

Nevertheless, it was radar that proved to be the critical weapon in the night battles over Britain from this point onward. Dowding had introduced the concept of airborne radar and encouraged its usage.

Eventually it would become a success. By 16 February , this had grown to 12; with five equipped, or partially equipped with Beaufighters spread over five Groups.

From November to February , the Luftwaffe shifted its strategy and attacked other industrial cities. The next night, a large force hit Coventry.

Only one bomber was lost, to anti-aircraft fire, despite the RAF flying night sorties. No follow up raids were made, as OKL underestimated the British power of recovery as Bomber Command would do over Germany from — The concentration had been achieved by accident.

By the end of November, 1, bombers were available for night raids. An average of were able to strike per night. In December, only 11 major and five heavy attacks were made.

Probably the most devastating attack occurred on the evening of 29 December, when German aircraft attacked the City of London itself with incendiary and high explosive bombs, causing a firestorm that has been called the Second Great Fire of London.

At , it released the first of 10, fire bombs, eventually amounting to dropped per minute. Not all of the Luftwaffe effort was made against inland cities.

Port cities were also attacked to try to disrupt trade and sea communications. In January, Swansea was bombed four times, very heavily.

On 17 January around bombers dropped a high concentration of incendiaries, some 32, in all. The main damage was inflicted on the commercial and domestic areas.

Four days later tons was dropped including 60, incendiaries. In Portsmouth Southsea and Gosport waves of bombers destroyed vast swaths of the city with 40, incendiaries.

Warehouses, rail lines and houses were destroyed and damaged, but the docks were largely untouched. Seven major and eight heavy attacks were flown, but the weather made it difficult to keep up the pressure.

Still, at Southampton , attacks were so effective morale did give way briefly with civilian authorities leading people en masse out of the city.

Although official German air doctrine did target civilian morale, it did not espouse the attacking of civilians directly.

It hoped to destroy morale by destroying the enemy's factories and public utilities as well as its food stocks by attacking shipping.

Nevertheless, its official opposition to attacks on civilians became an increasingly moot point when large-scale raids were conducted in November and December Although not encouraged by official policy, the use of mines and incendiaries, for tactical expediency, came close to indiscriminate bombing.

Locating targets in skies obscured by industrial haze meant the target area needed to be illuminated and hit "without regard for the civilian population".

The tactic was expanded into Feuerleitung Blaze Control with the creation of Brandbombenfelder Incendiary Fields to mark targets.

These were marked out by parachute flares. These decisions, apparently taken at the Luftflotte or Fliegerkorps level, meant attacks on individual targets were gradually replaced by what was, for all intents and purposes, an unrestricted area attack or Terrorangriff Terror Attack.

The effectiveness of British countermeasures against Knickebein , which was designed to avoid area attacks, forced the Luftwaffe to resort to these methods.

KGr increased its use of incendiaries from 13—28 percent. By December, this had increased to 92 percent. Other units ceased using parachute flares and opted for explosive target markers.

In , the Luftwaffe shifted strategy again. Erich Raeder —commander-in-chief of the Kriegsmarine —had long argued the Luftwaffe should support the German submarine force U-Bootwaffe in the Battle of the Atlantic by attacking shipping in the Atlantic Ocean and attacking British ports.

This meant that British coastal centres and shipping at sea west of Ireland were the prime targets. Hitler's interest in this strategy forced Göring and Jeschonnek to review the air war against Britain in January This led to Göring and Jeschonnek agreeing to Hitler's Directive 23, Directions for operations against the British War Economy , which was published on 6 February and gave aerial interdiction of British imports by sea top priority.

Directive 23 was the only concession made by Göring to the Kriegsmarine over the strategic bombing strategy of the Luftwaffe against Britain.

Thereafter, he would refuse to make available any air units to destroy British dockyards, ports, port facilities, or shipping in dock or at sea, lest Kriegsmarine gain control of more Luftwaffe units.

Göring's lack of co-operation was detrimental to the one air strategy with potentially decisive strategic effect on Britain.

Instead, he wasted aircraft of Fliegerführer Atlantik Flying Command Atlantic on bombing mainland Britain instead of attacks against convoys.

He was always reluctant to co-operate with Raeder. Even so, the decision by the OKL to support the strategy in Directive 23 was instigated by two considerations, both of which had little to do with wanting to destroy Britain's sea communications in conjunction with the Kriegsmarine.

First, the difficulty in estimating the impact of bombing upon war production was becoming apparent, and second, the conclusion British morale was unlikely to break led the OKL to adopt the naval option.

They emphasised the core strategic interest was attacking ports but they insisted in maintaining pressure, or diverting strength, onto industries building aircraft, anti-aircraft guns, and explosives.

Other targets would be considered if the primary ones could not be attacked because of weather conditions.

A further line in the directive stressed the need to inflict the heaviest losses possible, but also to intensify the air war in order to create the impression an amphibious assault on Britain was planned for However, meteorological conditions over Britain were not favourable for flying and prevented an escalation in air operations.

Airfields became water-logged and the 18 Kampfgruppen bomber groups of the Luftwaffe ' s Kampfgeschwadern bomber wings were relocated to Germany for rest and re-equipment.

From the German point of view, March saw an improvement. The Luftwaffe flew 4, sorties that month, including 12 major and three heavy attacks.

The electronic war intensified but the Luftwaffe flew major inland missions only on moonlit nights. Ports were easier to find and made better targets.

To confuse the British, radio silence was observed until the bombs fell. X- and Y- Gerät beams were placed over false targets and switched only at the last minute.

Rapid frequency changes were introduced for X- Gerät , whose wider band of frequencies and greater tactical flexibility ensured it remained effective at a time when British selective jamming was degrading the effectiveness of Y- Gerät.

By now, the imminent threat of invasion had all but passed as the Luftwaffe had failed to gain the prerequisite air superiority.

The aerial bombing was now principally aimed at the destruction of industrial targets, but also continued with the objective of breaking the morale of the civilian population.

These attacks produced some breaks in morale, with civil leaders fleeing the cities before the offensive reached its height.

But the Luftwaffe ' s effort eased in the last 10 attacks as seven Kampfgruppen moved to Austria in preparation for the Balkans Campaign in Yugoslavia and Greece.

The shortage of bombers caused OKL to improvise. The defences failed to prevent widespread damage but on some occasions did prevent German bombers concentrating on their targets.

On occasion, only one-third of German bombs hit their targets. The diversion of heavier bombers to the Balkans meant that the crews and units left behind were asked to fly two or three sorties per night.

Bombers were noisy, cold, and vibrated badly. Added to the tension of the mission which exhausted and drained crews, tiredness caught up with and killed many.

He fell asleep at the controls of his Ju 88 and woke up to discover the entire crew asleep. He roused them, ensured they took oxygen and Dextro-Energen tablets, then completed the mission.

The Luftwaffe could still inflict much damage and after the German conquest of Western Europe, the air and submarine offensive against British sea communications became much more dangerous than the German offensive during the First World War.

Liverpool and its port became an important destination for convoys heading through the Western Approaches from North America, bringing supplies and materials.

The considerable rail network distributed to the rest of the country. Minister of Home Security Herbert Morrison was also worried morale was breaking, noting the defeatism expressed by civilians.

Roads and railways were blocked and ships could not leave harbour. Around 66, houses were destroyed and 77, people made homeless "bombed out" [] , with 1, people killed and 1, seriously hurt on one night.

The populace of the port of Hull became "trekkers", people who made a mass exodus from cities before, during and after attacks. All but seven of its 12, houses were damaged.

Many more ports were attacked. Plymouth was attacked five times before the end of the month while Belfast, Hull, and Cardiff were hit.

Cardiff was bombed on three nights; Portsmouth centre was devastated by five raids. The rate of civilian housing lost was averaging 40, people per week dehoused in September In March , two raids on Plymouth and London dehoused , people.

Many houses and commercial centres were heavily damaged, the electrical supply was knocked out, and five oil tanks and two magazines exploded.

Nine days later, two waves of and bombers dropped heavy bombs, including tons of high explosive and 32, incendiaries. Much of the city centre was destroyed.

Damage was inflicted on the port installations, but many bombs fell on the city itself. On 17 April tons of explosives and 46, incendiaries were dropped from bombers led by KG The damage was considerable, and the Germans also used aerial mines.

Over 2, AAA shells were fired, destroying two Ju 88s. In the north, substantial efforts were made against Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland , which were large ports on the English east coast.

On 9 April Luftflotte 2 dropped tons of high explosives and 50, incendiaries from bombers in a five-hour attack.

Sewer, rail, docklands, and electric installations were damaged. In Sunderland on 25 April, Luftflotte 2 sent 60 bombers which dropped 80 tons of high explosive and 9, incendiaries.

Much damage was done. A further attack on the Clyde, this time at Greenock , took place on 6 and 7 May. However, as with the attacks in the south, the Germans failed to prevent maritime movements or cripple industry in the regions.

This caused more than 2, fires; 1, people were killed and 1, seriously injured, which affected morale badly. One-third of London's streets were impassable.

All but one railway station line was blocked for several weeks. German air supremacy at night was also now under threat.

British night-fighter operations out over the Channel were proving successful. Added to the fact an interception relied on visual sighting, a kill was most unlikely even in the conditions of a moonlit sky.

It was faster, able to catch the bombers and its configuration of four machine guns in a turret could much like German night fighters in — with Schräge Musik engage the German bomber from beneath.

Attacks from below offered a larger target, compared to attacking tail-on, as well as a better chance of not being seen by the crew so less chance of evasion , as well as greater likelihood of detonating its bomb load.

In subsequent months a steady number of German bombers would fall to night fighters. Improved aircraft designs were in the offing with the Bristol Beaufighter, then under development.

It would prove formidable but its development was slow. In January , Fighter Command flew sorties against 1, made by the Germans.

Night fighters could claim only four bombers for four losses. By April and May , the Luftwaffe was still getting through to their targets, taking no more than one- to two-percent losses per mission.

In the following month, 22 German bombers were lost with 13 confirmed to have been shot down by night fighters. Between 20 June , when the first German air operations began over Britain, and 31 March , OKL recorded the loss of 2, aircraft over the British Isles, a quarter of them fighters and one third bombers.

At least 3, Luftwaffe aircrew were killed, 2, missing and 2, wounded. A significant number of the aircraft not shot down after the resort to night bombing were wrecked during landings or crashed in bad weather.

The military effectiveness of bombing varied. Despite the bombing, British production rose steadily throughout this period, although there were significant falls during April , probably influenced by the departure of workers for Easter Holidays, according to the British official history.

The official history volume British War Production Postan, noted that the greatest effect on output of warlike stores was on the supply of components and dispersal of production rather than complete equipments.

In aircraft production, the British were denied the opportunity to reach the planned target of 2, aircraft in a month, arguably the greatest achievement of the bombing, as it forced the dispersal of the industry, at first because of damage to aircraft factories and then by a policy of precautionary dispersal.

The attacks against Birmingham took war industries some three months to recover fully. The exhausted population took three weeks to overcome the effects of an attack.

The air offensive against the RAF and British industry failed to have the desired effect. More might have been achieved had OKL exploited the vulnerability of British sea communications.

The Allies did so later when Bomber Command attacked rail communications and the United States Army Air Forces targeted oil, but that would have required an economic-industrial analysis of which the Luftwaffe was incapable.

They concluded bombers should strike a single target each night and use more incendiaries, because they had a greater impact on production than high explosives.

They also noted regional production was severely disrupted when city centres were devastated through the loss of administrative offices, utilities and transport.

They believed the Luftwaffe had failed in precision attack and concluded the German example of area attack using incendiaries was the way forward for operations over Germany.

Some writers claim the Air Staff ignored a critical lesson, that British morale did not break and that attacking German morale was not sufficient to induce a collapse.

Aviation strategists dispute that morale was ever a major consideration for Bomber Command. Throughout —39 none of the 16 Western Air Plans drafted mentioned morale as a target.

The first three directives in did not mention civilian populations or morale in any way. Morale was not mentioned until the ninth wartime directive on 21 September The AOC Bomber Command, Arthur Harris , who did see German morale as an objective, did not believe that the morale-collapse could occur without the destruction of the German economy.

The primary goal of Bomber Command was to destroy the German industrial base economic warfare and in doing so reduce morale. In late , just before the Battle of Berlin , Harris declared the power of Bomber Command would enable it to achieve "a state of devastation in which surrender is inevitable".

From to the end of the war, he [Harris] and other proponents of the area offensive represented it [the bomber offensive] less as an attack on morale than as an assault on the housing, utilities, communications, and other services that supported the war production effort.

A converse popular image arose of British people in the Second World War: a collection of people locked in national solidarity.

This image entered the historiography of the Second World War in the s and s, especially after the publication of Angus Calder 's book The Myth of the Blitz It was evoked by both the right and left political factions in Britain during the Falklands War when it was portrayed in a nostalgic narrative in which the Second World War represented patriotism actively and successfully acting as a defender of democracy.

In the Myth of the Blitz , Calder exposed some of the counter-evidence of anti-social and divisive behaviours. In particular, class division was most evident during the Blitz.

Raids during the Blitz produced the greatest divisions and morale effects in the working-class areas, with lack of sleep , insufficient shelters and inefficiency of warning systems being major causes.

The loss of sleep was a particular factor, with many not bothering to attend inconvenient shelters. The Communist Party made political capital out of these difficulties.

Many Londoners, in particular, took to using the Underground railway system, without authority, for shelter and sleeping through the night.

So worried were the government over the sudden campaign of leaflets and posters distributed by the Communist Party in Coventry and London, that the police were sent to seize their production facilities.

The government up until November , was opposed to the centralised organisation of shelter. Home Secretary Sir John Anderson was replaced by Morrison soon afterwards, in the wake of a Cabinet reshuffle as the dying Neville Chamberlain resigned.

Morrison warned that he could not counter the Communist unrest unless provision of shelters were made. He recognised the right of the public to seize tube stations and authorised plans to improve their condition and expand them by tunnelling.

Still, many British citizens, who had been members of the Labour Party , itself inert over the issue, turned to the Communist Party.

The Communists attempted to blame the damage and casualties of the Coventry raid on the rich factory owners, big business and landowning interests and called for a negotiated peace.

Though they failed to make a large gain in influence, the membership of the Party had doubled by June Anti-Semitic attitudes became widespread, particularly in London.

Rumours that Jewish support was underpinning the Communist surge were frequent. Rumours that Jews were inflating prices, were responsible for the Black Market , were the first to panic under attack even the cause of the panic and secured the best shelters via underhanded methods, were also widespread.

There was also minor ethnic antagonism between the small Black , Indian and Jewish communities, but despite this these tensions quietly and quickly subsided.

Over a quarter of London's population had left the city by November Civilians left for more remote areas of the country.

Upsurges in population in south Wales and Gloucester intimated where these displaced people went. Other reasons, including industry dispersal may have been a factor.

However, resentment of rich self-evacuees or hostile treatment of poor ones were signs of persistence of class resentments although these factors did not appear to threaten social order.

Reception committees were completely unprepared for the condition of some of the children. Far from displaying the nation's unity in time of war, the scheme backfired, often aggravating class antagonism and bolstering prejudice about the urban poor.

Within four months, 88 per cent of evacuated mothers, 86 per cent of small children, and 43 per cent of school children had been returned home.

The lack of bombing in the Phoney War contributed significantly to the return of people to the cities, but class conflict was not eased a year later when evacuation operations had to be put into effect again.

In recent years a large number of wartime recordings relating to the Blitz have been made available on audiobooks such as The Blitz , The Home Front and British War Broadcasting.

These collections include period interviews with civilians, servicemen, aircrew, politicians and Civil Defence personnel, as well as Blitz actuality recordings, news bulletins and public information broadcasts.

Notable interviews include Thomas Alderson, the first recipient of the George Cross, John Cormack, who survived eight days trapped beneath rubble on Clydeside, and Herbert Morrison's famous "Britain shall not burn" appeal for more fireguards in December In one 6-month period, , tons of bombsite rubble from London were transported by railway on 1, freight trains to make runways on Bomber Command airfields in East Anglia.

Below is a table by city of the number of major raids where at least tons of bombs were dropped and tonnage of bombs dropped during these major raids.

Smaller raids are not included in the tonnages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Blitz disambiguation.

For other bombings, see London attack. The Blitz — British home front during World War II. Main article: Strategic bombing.

See also: Anti-aircraft warfare. Main article: Battle of the Beams. See also: Organization of the Luftwaffe. See also: Directive In mid-September, Bf units possessed only 67 per cent of crews against authorised aircraft, Bf units just 46 per cent and bomber units 59 per cent.

German sources estimated 5—10 per cent of bombs failed to explode; the British put the figure at 20 per cent. London: Aurum Press. Inside Europe.

The Atlantic. Addison, Paul and Jeremy Crang. London: Pimlico, London: Aurum Press, The Myth of the Blitz.

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